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Friday, 13 September 2013

Features of Java

Following are the features or buzzwords of Java language which made it popular:
1.Platform Independent
3. Object Oriented
4. Intepreted
5. Distributed
7. Robust
8. Dynamic
9. Automatic memory management
10.Architecture Neutral
12.High Performance

Platform Independent
  • The concept of Write-once-run-anywhere (known as the Platform independent) is one of the important key feature of java language that makes java as the most powerful language.
  • Java code can be run on multiple platforms e.g.Windows,Linux,Sun Solaris,Mac/OS etc.
  • Java code is compiled by the compiler and converted into bytecode.This bytecode is a platform independent code because it can run on multiple platforms i.e. Write Once Run Anywhere(WORA).
  • Java has a concise, cohesive set of features that make it easy to learn and use.
  • Java's syntax is based on C++.
  • Java omitted many confusing and/or rarely used features of C++ .Eg.Explicit pointers,structures,unions,operator overloading,virtual base class,etc.
Object Oriented
  • In simple words,object oriented design is a technique for programming that focusses on the objects(i.e. data) and methods to that object.
  • Object oriented programming simplifies software development and maintenance by providing some rules.
  • Basic object oriented concepts :
  1. Class
  2. Object
  3. Abstraction
  4. Encapsulation
  5. Inheritance
  6. Polymorphism
  7. Message Passing
  8. Reusability
     For more information on this concepts .Click Here.

  • The Java interpreter can execute Java bytecodes directly on any machine to which the interpreter has been ported.
  • The source code is first compiled and then generates the code into an intermediate representation called Java bytecode which is a highly optimized set of instruction code.
  • This code can be interpreted on any system that has a Java Virtual Machine(JVM) and generates the machine code.
  • Java was made/designed with the distributed environment of the Internet in mind.
  • RMI and EJB are used for creating distributed applications.
  • The widely used protocols like HTTP and FTP are developed in Java.
  • Java applications can open and/or access objects across the Net via URLs with the same ease as when accessing a local file system.

  • Java is secured because:
  1. No explicit pointer
  2. Programs run inside virtual machine sandbox.
  • Java enables the construction of virus - free,tamper - free systems.

  • Robust simply means strong.
  • Java encourages error - free programming by being strictly typed and performing run - time checks.
  • Java lacks expilicit pointers which means less security problem.
  • Java puts a lot of emphasis on early checking for possible problems i.e.  compile time checking  , run time checking and eliminating situations that are error -prone.
  • All of the above features makes the Java language robust.

  • The Java Virtual Machine(JVM) maintains a lot of runtime information about the program and the objects in the program. 
  • Libraries are dynamically linked during runtime. 
  • So, even if you make dynamic changes to pieces of code, the program is not effected.
Automatic memory management
  • Automatic memory management ,also known as automatic garbage collection ,is the practice of allowing the language implementation to keep track of used and unused memory,freeing the programmer from this burden.
  • For example,in C++ programming language ,dynamically allocated memory will be de-allocated if the delete operator is called.

Architecture Neutral
  • The compiler generates an architecture-neutral object file format -the compiled code.
  • It is executable on many processors,given the presence of the java run time system.
  • The Java compiler does this by generating bytecode instructions which have nothing to do with particular computer architecture.
  • In short,Java is Architecture-neutral it generates bytecode that resembles machine code, and are not specific to any processor.

  • Java programs can execute in any environment for which there is a Java run-time system.

High Performance
  • Java uses native code usage, and lightweight process called  threads. 
  • In the beginning interpretation of bytecode resulted the performance slow but the advance version of JVM uses the adaptive and Just in time (JIT) compilation technique that improves the performance.

  • Java is also a Multithreaded programming language.
  •  Multithreading means a single program having different threads executing independently at the same time. 
  • Multiple threads execute instructions according to the program code in a process or a program. Multithreading works the similar way as multiple processes run on one computer.

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